Department of Bicultural-Bilingual Studies

The Department of Bicultural-Bilingual Studies offers graduate certificates in Bilingual Reading Specialist and Teaching English as a Second Language (CertTESL), and three graduate degrees: the Master of Arts degree in Bicultural-Bilingual Studies, the Master of Arts degree in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL), and the Doctor of Philosophy degree in Culture, Literacy and Language. For individuals seeking Texas Teacher Certification, the Department offers concentrations for Bilingual Generalist EC-6 and ESL Generalist EC-6.

Master of Arts Degree in Bicultural-Bilingual Studies

The Master of Arts degree in Bicultural-Bilingual Studies is designed to respond to a variety of societal needs through advanced multidisciplinary study in language, culture, and related disciplines. It has concentrations in Bicultural-Bilingual Education and Bicultural Studies.

Program Admission Requirements

The Department of Bicultural-Bilingual Studies offers an interdisciplinary program that encourages applicants from a wide range of disciplines. In addition to University-wide admission requirements, applicants must submit a one-page statement of purpose, in either English or Spanish, describing why she or he wants to pursue a master’s degree. Applicants who do not meet University-wide requirements for unconditional admission may be admitted conditionally if scores from the Graduate Record Examination (GRE), letters of recommendation, and/or previous work in the field provide evidence of academic potential. Information on the GRE and applications for the test may be obtained from UTSA Testing Services or from the Educational Testing Service (www.ets.org/gre/). The institution code for The University of Texas at San Antonio is 6919 for the GRE.

Degree Requirements

Degree candidates are required to complete successfully a 36-semester-credit-hour program. Upon completion of at least 30 semester credit hours of coursework, the candidate is required to pass a written and oral comprehensive examination.

Candidates for the concentration in Bicultural-Bilingual Teacher Education must demonstrate proficiency in a second language. Candidates for the concentration in Bicultural Studies are required to give evidence of second language learning experiences acceptable to the department’s Graduate Program Committee.

Bicultural-Bilingual Teacher Education Concentration

This concentration is offered for students interested in advanced study in the design and implementation of bicultural-bilingual education programs. This interdisciplinary course of study presents systematic instruction in bilingualism, cultural dynamics, and applied linguistics. It also includes an examination of theory and research related to effective bilingual education. The Master’s degree is offered under two options: thesis and nonthesis.

Degree Requirements

Degree candidates must complete the following:

Option 1. Nonthesis Option
A. Required coursework. 30 semester credit hours of coursework from six major areas as follows:
Sociocultural Studies:
Select 6 hours from the following6
Foundations for Bicultural Studies
Multicultural Groups in the United States
Cultural Adaptation in Bilingual Societies
Sociolinguistics and Education
Latino Biculturalism in the United States
Anthropology and Education in Multicultural Contexts
Bilingual Education Theory:
BBL 5113Theoretical Foundations of Bicultural-Bilingual Education3
Linguistics and Second Language Studies:
ESL 5013Foundations of Second Language Acquisition3
Bilingual Teaching Methodology:
Select 6 hours of the following courses:6
Bilingual Content Instruction
Biliteracy in Bilingual Classrooms
Multicultural Literature for Children
Research and Assessment:
BBL 5053Assessment in Bilingual and ESL Programs3
BBL 6043Advanced Topics in Bilingual and Dual-Language Education3
English as a Second Language:
Select 6 hours of the following courses:6
Second Language Reading and Writing
Approaches to Second Language Instruction
Language and Content-Area Instruction
B. Electives
6 semester credit hours of graduate elective coursework in Bicultural-Bilingual Studies, English as a Second Language, or in approved related areas.6
Total Credit Hours36
Option II. Thesis Option 
A. Required coursework. 30 semester credit hours of coursework from six major areas as follows:
Sociocultural Studies:
Select up to two of the following courses:3-6
Foundations for Bicultural Studies
Multicultural Groups in the United States
Cultural Adaptation in Bilingual Societies
Select up to two of the following courses:3-6
Sociolinguistics and Education
Latino Biculturalism in the United States
Anthropology and Education in Multicultural Contexts
Bilingual Education Theory:
BBL 5113Theoretical Foundations of Bicultural-Bilingual Education3
Linguistics and Second Language Studies:
ESL 5013Foundations of Second Language Acquisition3
Select the following if 6 hours are selected:
ESL 5003Linguistics for Second Language and Bilingual Specialists3
Bilingual Teaching Methodology:
Select 6 hours of the following courses:6
Bilingual Content Instruction
Biliteracy in Bilingual Classrooms
Sociocultural Issues and the Teaching of Reading
Multicultural Literature for Children
Research and Assessment:
BBL 5053Assessment in Bilingual and ESL Programs3
BBL 6043Advanced Topics in Bilingual and Dual-Language Education3
Select 3 hours of the following:3
Research Design and Inquiry in Bicultural-Bilingual Studies
Research Methods in Bilingual and Second Language Studies
Ethnographic Research Methods in Bicultural-Bilingual Settings
Second Language Acquisition Research
B. Master’s Thesis6
Total Credit Hours36

Bicultural-Bilingual Teacher Education Concentration with Teacher Certification in Bilingual Generalist EC-6

The Bicultural-Bilingual Teacher Education concentration  with Teacher Certification in Bilingual Generalist EC-6 program is designed for individuals seeking bilingual education certification at the graduate level. The coursework will prepare students in the field of bilingual education teaching methods and research; students will also have opportunity to engage in field work and a supervised teaching experience. Program of study, modules, and professional development experiences will be provided to prepare students for teacher certification exams. The  M.A. in Bicultural-Bilingual Studies with a Bicultural-Bilingual Teacher Education concentration  with Teacher Certification in Bilingual Generalist EC-6 is a 36 hour program and experiences are designed to meet the state teacher certification requirements for Bilingual Generalist EC-6.

Degree Requirements

The Bicultural-Bilingual Teacher Education concentration  with Teacher Certification in Bilingual Generalist EC-6 requires admission to the graduate program and to the teacher certification program. Students must complete a supervised teaching experience and a graduate project. Students who are offered a teaching position may elect to complete a year-long paid internship in lieu of the semester clinical teaching experience. To obtain Texas Teacher Certification, an applicant must meet all educator certification requirements (see the MA-BITE-C Degree Information Sheet on the COEHD website).

Socio-Cultural Studies:
Select 6 hours from the following courses:6
Foundations for Bicultural Studies
Multicultural Groups in the United States
Cultural Adaptation in Bilingual Societies
Sociolinguistics and Education
Latino Biculturalism in the United States
Anthropology and Education in Multicultural Contexts
Multicultural Literature for Children
Bilingual Education Theory:
BBL 5113Theoretical Foundations of Bicultural-Bilingual Education3
Linguisics and Second Language Studies:
ESL 5013Foundations of Second Language Acquisition3
Bilingual Teaching:
BBL 5033Bilingual Content Instruction3
BBL 5063Biliteracy in Bilingual Classrooms3
Research and Assessment:
BBL 5053Assessment in Bilingual and ESL Programs3
BBL 6043Advanced Topics in Bilingual and Dual-Language Education3
English as a Second Language:
Select 6 hours from the following courses:6
Second Language Reading and Writing
Approaches to Second Language Instruction
Language and Content-Area Instruction
Internship/Practicum:
6 semester credit hours of internship/practicum: 6
Instructional Internship in Teaching
Total Credit Hours36

Bicultural Studies Concentration

This program concentration offers students the opportunity to pursue interdisciplinary study of cultural diversity and sociocultural dynamics in multicultural societies. Emphasis is on the study of biculturalism in the United States. Courses are designed for students with professional, policy, and research interests in intercultural relations within the various institutional settings of society, including business, education, government, health, social services, and cultural organizations. The curriculum complements a wide range of academic backgrounds including the humanities, social sciences, public policy, and business. At least 21 semester credit hours must be courses with a BBL designation. The Master’s degree is offered under two options: thesis and nonthesis.

Degree Requirements

Degree candidates must complete the following 36 semester credit hours of coursework:

A. Required coursework. 30 semester credit hours of coursework from four major areas as follows:
Sociocultural Foundations:
BBL 5003Foundations for Bicultural Studies3
Select 9 additional semester credit hours of the following:9
Multicultural Groups in the United States
Cultural Adaptation in Bilingual Societies
Latino Biculturalism in the United States
Topics in Bicultural Studies (Consult the program advisor.)
Chicana/Latina Feminist Methodologies
Anthropology and Education in Multicultural Contexts
Historical Foundations. Select 3 hours from the following:3
Chicana/o Historical Thought
History of the Spanish Borderlands
South Texas: Rural and Urban
The U.S.–Mexico Border
Colonial Mexico
Modern Mexico
Latina/os in the United States
Expressive Culture and Language Diversity. Select 9 hours from the following:9
Topics in Mesoamerican Pre-Columbian Art
Topics in Latin American Colonial Art
Topics in Contemporary Latin American Art
Ethnography of Communication
Multicultural Art and Folklore in the United States
Sociolinguistics and Education
Multicultural Literature for Children
Latin American Civilization
Studies in Hispanic Culture
Mexican American Literature
Spanish of the Southwest
Research Foundations:
BBL 6003Research Design and Inquiry in Bicultural-Bilingual Studies3
BBL 6073Ethnographic Research Methods in Bicultural-Bilingual Settings3
B. Select one of the following options:6
Option I. 6 semester credit hours of Master’s Thesis
Option II. 6 semester credit hours of graduate elective coursework in Bicultural-Bilingual Studies, English as a Second Language, or approved related areas.
Total Credit Hours36

Master of Arts Degree in Teaching English as a Second Language

The Master of Arts degree in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) is designed for students interested in teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language (ESL/EFL) to children or adults in schools and programs in the United States or in international settings. It is an interdisciplinary program that presents systematic instruction in applied/educational linguistics, second language acquisition theory, and ESL/EFL program implementation.

Program Admission Requirements

The Department of Bicultural-Bilingual Studies offers an interdisciplinary program that encourages applicants from a wide range of disciplines. Applicants who do not meet University-wide requirements for unconditional admission may be admitted conditionally if scores from the Graduate Record Examination (GRE), letters of recommendation, and/or previous work in the field provide evidence of academic potential. Information on the GRE and applications for the test may be obtained from UTSA Testing Services or from the Educational Testing Service (www.ets.org/gre/). The institution code for The University of Texas at San Antonio is 6919 for the GRE. International students must have a minimum score of 80 on the TOEFL Internet-based Test (iBT), 550 on the TOEFL Paper-based Test (PBT), or 6.5 on the IELTS. See Chapter 1 of this catalog for information on exemptions from this requirement.

Candidates for a degree are required to give evidence of second language learning experiences acceptable to the Graduate Program Committee.

Degree Requirements

Degree candidates are required to successfully complete a 36-semester-credit-hour program. Upon completion of at least 30 semester credit hours of coursework, the candidate is required to pass a comprehensive examination.

Students must take at least 21 semester credit hours of English as a Second Language courses and 9 hours of Bicultural-Bilingual studies courses. An internship is required: students who can document relevant teaching experience may petition to substitute an elective for the internship. The Master’s degree is offered under two options: thesis and nonthesis.

Degree candidates must complete the following 36 semester credit hours of coursework:

A. Required coursework. 30 semester credit hours of coursework from four major areas as follows:
Language Theory and Language Use:
BBL 5123Sociolinguistics and Education3
ESL 5003Linguistics for Second Language and Bilingual Specialists3
ESL 5013Foundations of Second Language Acquisition3
Classroom Practice and Program Designs:
Select 9 hours of the following:9
Assessment in Bilingual and ESL Programs
Internship in English as a Second Language
Approaches to Second Language Instruction
Language and Content-Area Instruction
Select 3 hours of the following:3
Second Language Reading and Writing
Listening and Speaking in Second Language Programs
Computer Assisted Language Learning
Pedagogical Grammar
Family and Adult Literacy in Language Minority Communities
Program and Syllabus Design
Advanced Second Language Literacy
Research:
Select 6 hours from the following:6
Research Methods in Bilingual and Second Language Studies
Ethnographic Research Methods in Bicultural-Bilingual Settings
Second Language Acquisition Research
Sociocultural Studies. Select one course from the following:3
Foundations for Bicultural Studies
Multicultural Groups in the United States
Cultural Adaptation in Bilingual Societies
Ethnography of Communication
Chicana/o Historical Thought
Anthropology and Education in Multicultural Contexts
B. Select one of the following options:6
Option I. 6 semester credit hours of Master’s Thesis
Option II. 6 semester credit hours of graduate elective coursework which must be approved by the student’s advisor and 3 hours of which must carry an ESL prefix.
Total Credit Hours36

Master of Arts Degree in Teaching English as a Second Language with ESL Generalist EC-6 Teacher Certification

The M.A. in TESL with Teacher Certification (TESL-C) program is designed to allow students to simultaneously complete their Master’s degree and earn their teaching certification credential for early childhood through sixth grade in ESL through the Texas Education Agency. 

English language learners (ELLs) are amongst the fastest-growing group in U.S. schools, and ELLs in Texas are becoming increasingly diverse, coming from a wide variety of cultural and linguistic backgrounds.  Schools need teachers who are trained to work with ELLs, and who understand how the process of acquiring English as second language can be fostered, while at the same time helping students succeed across content areas. Additionally, many districts need ESL specialists, and often ESL teachers work in conjunction with dual language programs, newcomer centers for refugee and immigrant children, and with students who have transitioned from bilingual programs. 

A distinctive emphasis of the program is its holistic view of English language acquisition as a component of a student’s bi-/multilingual development. Dynamic and hands-on courses explore how human learn additional languages, and strategies, techniques and best practices for teaching ESL students that values their linguistic and cultural diversity.

Degree Requirements

The TESL-C program consists of 36 semester credit hours (12 graduate courses), plus some additional learning modules and practice teaching (see the TESL-C Degree Information Sheet on the COEHD website).  

36 semester credit hours of required coursework from four major areas as follows:
Language Theory and Use Core:
BBL 5123Sociolinguistics and Education3
ESL 5003Linguistics for Second Language and Bilingual Specialists3
ESL 5013Foundations of Second Language Acquisition3
Classroom Practice:
ESL 5033Second Language Reading and Writing3
ESL 5053Approaches to Second Language Instruction3
ESL 5063Language and Content-Area Instruction3
BBL 5053Assessment in Bilingual and ESL Programs3
and 6 hours from the following:6
Listening and Speaking in Second Language Programs
Computer Assisted Language Learning
Pedagogical Grammar
Sociocultural Issues and the Teaching of Reading
Multicultural Literature for Children
Classroom Management and Motivation
Differentiated Instruction in a Diverse Classroom
Research:
BBL 6063Research Methods in Bilingual and Second Language Studies3
Certification and Teaching Requirements:
6 hours of the following course:6
Internship in English as a Second Language
Total Credit Hours36

Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Culture, Literacy and Language

The Department of Bicultural-Bilingual Studies offers opportunities for advanced study and research leading to the Doctor of Philosophy degree in Culture, Literacy and Language. The program focuses on interdisciplinary research in multicultural-multilingual contexts and is designed to provide a firm foundation in the fields of cultural studies, literacy development, and language learning and use. Successful Ph.D. candidates must demonstrate in-depth interdisciplinary knowledge in culture, literacy, and language, and must deliver an original contribution to the field.

The regulations for this degree comply with the general University regulations (refer to Chapter 2, General Academic Regulations, and Chapter 5, Doctoral Degree Regulations).

Program Admission Requirements

In addition to the University-wide admission requirements, the minimum requirements for admission to the Doctoral degree program in Culture, Literacy and Language (CLL) are as follows:

  1. A master’s degree in an area such as the following: anthropology, applied linguistics, bicultural-bilingual studies, communication, cultural studies, ethnic studies, education (general, bilingual, foreign language, multicultural), history, international studies, linguistics, psychology, sociology, and teaching English as a Second Language. Masters’ degrees in other fields may be accepted, subject to the approval of the Doctoral Studies Committee.
  2. A portfolio consisting of the following items will be evaluated by the Doctoral Studies Committee, comprised of members selected from the graduate faculty of the Department of Bicultural-Bilingual Studies:
    1. A master’s degree transcript documenting a grade point average of 3.5 or better in an approved master’s degree program.
    2. Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores for exam taken within the last five (5) years.
    3. Proficiency or experience learning, using, studying or speaking a language other than English.
    4. For students whose master’s degree is from a non-English-speaking university, submission of a Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) score of no less than 550 on the Paper-based Test (PBT), 79 on the Internet-based Test (iBT), or 6.5 on IELTS.
    5. Three letters of recommendation attesting to the student’s academic and personal attributes for success in the program and potential for contributing substantially to a field of study related to the degree.
    6. Statement of Purpose: A description of research interests, reasons for seeking doctoral study, and connections between the applicant’s interests/professional goals and the program in Culture, Literacy, and Language; please also discuss your proficiency or experience learning, using, studying, or speaking a language other than English.  (Limit of five double-spaced pages).
    7. Academic writing: A sample of academic writing such as a paper written for a course, a master’s thesis, or a scholarly publication.

Degree Requirements

The Doctoral degree requires a minimum of 60 semester credit hours beyond the master’s degree. The CLL foundational curriculum consists of 24 semester credit hours of required coursework (foundation, core, and designated electives). A minimum of 12 semester credit hours in research methods and 15 semester credit hours in doctoral research must be completed. The remaining 9 semester credit hours consist of elective courses selected with advisor’s approval.

Program of Study

A. Foundation Course:
BBL 7003Proseminar in Culture, Literacy and Language3
B. Research Methods Courses:
BBL 7013Research Design and Statistics for Culture, Literacy and Language3
BBL 7023Qualitative Research Methods for Culture, Literacy and Language3
BBL 7043Research Design and Qualitative Analysis for Culture, Literacy and Language3
EDU 7043Educational Research Statistics: Descriptive and Comparative3
(Or other approved statistical methods course.)
C. Core Courses
BBL 7123Sociocultural Contexts of Literacy3
BBL 7133Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition3
BBL 7213Ethnological Theory3
D. Designated Electives. Students, in consultation with their academic advisor and the Graduate Advisor of Record, will select 12 semester credit hours for an emphasis in a coherent interdisciplinary area. As part of these 12 hours, students will be required to take a minimum of 6 semester credit hours of advanced Doctoral seminars.12
Advanced Doctoral Seminars:
Seminar in Advanced Research Methods
Seminar in Cultural Studies Research
Seminar in Mexican American and Latina/o Biculturalism
Seminar in Biliteracy and Second Language Literacy
Seminar in Second Language Learning & Multilingualism
Seminar in Applied Linguistics
Seminar in Mexican American & Latina/o Issues in Education
Other Designated Electives:
Ethnography of Communication
Sociolinguistics and Education
Advanced Topics in Bilingual and Dual-Language Education
Ethnographic Research Methods in Bicultural-Bilingual Settings
Chicana/Latina Feminist Methodologies
Anthropology and Education in Multicultural Contexts
Advanced Topics in Language Policy
Technology for Qualitative Research
Computer Assisted Language Learning
Second Language Acquisition Research
E. Free Electives. Students will select additional graduate-level courses within the University in order to complete a coherent emphasis area. Selection must be made with the approval of their academic advisor and the Doctoral Program Coordinator (Graduate Advisor of Record). Selection of this coursework will be driven by two primary factors: the discipline in which a student has completed the Master’s degree and the research goals for that student. 9
F. Doctoral Research:
BBL 7303Directed Doctoral Research (3 hours minimum)3
BBL 7313Doctoral Dissertation (12 hours minimum)12
Total Credit Hours60

The entire program of study must be approved by the student’s dissertation advisor, Dissertation Committee, and the Doctoral Studies Committee and must be submitted to the Dean of the Graduate School through the Dean of the College for final approval.

Qualifying Examination

Students, in consultation with their Academic Advisor, will submit the names of three faculty members representing the areas of culture, literacy, and language to the Doctoral Studies Committee for approval. The approved Qualifying Examination Committee will design, administer, and evaluate a two-part (written and oral) examination. The written portion of the examination covers the areas completed in all foundation, core, and designated elective courses and cannot be taken until after the completion of 36 semester credit hours. In order to pass this examination, the student must demonstrate a broad knowledge of culture, literacy, and language. The oral portion of the examination takes place within two weeks of the written portion and focuses on clarifying the student’s ideas from the written portion. The purpose of the examination is to ensure that the student has a sufficient grasp of the theoretical and methodological fundamentals to conduct independent research in the chosen dissertation area. No more than two attempts to pass qualifying examinations are allowed.

Dissertation Committee

Upon successful completion of the Qualifying Examination, the student is eligible to defend his/her dissertation proposal. In preparation for the dissertation research, the student will identify a Dissertation Chair. The research topic will be determined by the student in consultation with their supervising professor. A Dissertation Committee of four members—selected by the student and their Dissertation Chair—must be approved by the Doctoral Studies Committee and Graduate School prior to the proposal hearing/defense.

Dissertation Proposal

The approved Dissertation Committee will guide and critique the student’s dissertation proposal. The student should give a complete draft of the dissertation proposal to the Supervising Professor (Dissertation Chair) one month before the proposal hearing/defense and to the other committee members at least three weeks in advance. The proposal hearing/defense must be advertised to the University community two weeks prior to the set date. Upon successful defense of the proposal, and before conducting the study, the student must secure UTSA Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval for any dissertation research that involves human subjects.

Advancement to Candidacy

Advancement to candidacy will require a student to complete all University and program requirements:

  • Have an approved program of study
  • Pass written and oral qualifying examinations
  • Select a supervising professor and Dissertation Committee
  • Successfully defend a dissertation proposal before the Dissertation Committee
  • Secure approval of appropriate human subjects research forms.

Dissertation and Final Oral Examination

Candidates must demonstrate their ability to conduct independent research by completing and defending an original dissertation. The Doctoral dissertation must make a substantial contribution to a field within culture, literacy, and language. The final draft of the dissertation should be given to all committee members one month before the oral defense date. The Dissertation Committee must unanimously approve the completed dissertation. The dissertation shall be defended publicly before the student’s committee and interested members of the University community. Therefore, the dissertation defense must be advertised to the University community two weeks prior to the set date. Following an open presentation of the dissertation findings, a final oral examination covering the dissertation and the general field of the dissertation will be administered and evaluated by the student’s Dissertation Committee.

Graduate Certificate in Bilingual Reading Specialist

The Bilingual Reading Specialist certificate is a 15-semester-credit-hour graduate certificate program for those who wish to become bilingual reading specialists as well as for educators who wish to obtain increased knowledge of reading instruction and literacy development in bilingual contexts.

The Bilingual Reading Specialist certificate offers specialized training for those who possess a valid teaching license and wish to become better prepared to provide appropriate reading instruction to students in bilingual programs in public schools. The program is available to students who have been admitted as special graduate students and seek the certificate independent of a degree, as well as graduate students pursuing an M.A. degree in Bicultural-Bilingual Studies with a concentration in Bicultural-Bilingual Education.

Certificate Program Requirements

The Bilingual Reading Specialist Certificate requires successful completion of the following five graduate courses:

BBL 5053Assessment in Bilingual and ESL Programs3
BBL 5063Biliteracy in Bilingual Classrooms3
BBL 5173Sociocultural Issues and the Teaching of Reading3
BBL 5193Multicultural Literature for Children3
ESL 5033Second Language Reading and Writing3
Total Credit Hours15

Linkages with other UTSA programs. Students who complete the Bilingual Reading Specialist certificate program may choose to complete an additional 12 graduate hours in Curriculum and Instruction to meet the state certification requirements for the Reading Specialist certification and subsequent Master Reading Teacher certification. This option would be in consultation with the literacy education faculty in the Department of Interdisciplinary Learning and Teaching.

Graduate Certificate in Teaching English as a Second Language

The Graduate Certificate in Teaching English as a Second Language (CertTESL) is a gateway to the English language teaching profession. It provides students with the specialized training needed to begin a career in English language teaching in the U.S. or abroad, explore a career change, add specialized training to current professional skills, or teach English in retirement. No prior training in language teaching or linguistics is required.

Practical, hands-on courses offer a general foundation in methods, techniques, and strategies for teaching English language learners of all ages. The program places a special emphasis on teaching English in multilingual settings, preparing students to offer socially responsible and linguistically appropriate lessons to help English language learners develop strong intercultural communication skills.

Note: This is a non-degree-seeking program. Admission to the certificate program does not imply admission to any degree program. The certificate in TESL is not equivalent to K–12 teacher certification in ESL or bilingual education in Texas, although some courses may overlap.

Certificate Program Requirements

The CertTESL consists of 15 semester credit hours (five graduate courses). All students take ESL 5013 Foundations of Second Language Acquisition, ESL 5043 Listening and Speaking in Second Language Programs, and ESL 6943 Internship in English as a Second Language. Teaching methods and literacy courses are selected in consultation with a student’s advisor, based on career objectives.

A. Core:
ESL 5013Foundations of Second Language Acquisition3
B. Language Skills:
ESL 5043Listening and Speaking in Second Language Programs3
Select 3 hours in literacy of the following:3
Second Language Reading and Writing
Family and Adult Literacy in Language Minority Communities
Advanced Second Language Literacy
C. Teaching Methods. Select 3 hours of the following:3
Approaches to Second Language Instruction
Language and Content-Area Instruction
Computer Assisted Language Learning
Pedagogical Grammar
D. Practicum:
ESL 6943Internship in English as a Second Language3
Total Credit Hours15

Bicultural Bilingual Studies (BBL) Courses

BBL 5003. Foundations for Bicultural Studies. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

The study of concepts, theories, and approaches used in the examination of culture and society, with emphasis on the analysis of bicultural and transcultural praxis.

BBL 5013. Multicultural Groups in the United States. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

A study of sociocultural diversity, culture maintenance and change, culture revitalization, and other aspects of ethnicity, race, class and gender in the United States, including the principles of critical race theory.

BBL 5023. Cultural Adaptation in Bilingual Societies. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

The study of the dynamic relations between culture, language, and the social environment. Explanations for the range of cultural, historical, social-cognitive, psychological, and political-economic adaptations in diverse systems.

BBL 5033. Bilingual Content Instruction. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Examines curriculum development, materials, and pedagogy applicable to the integrated teaching of mathematics and the social and natural sciences in bilingual classrooms. Emphasizes research-based methods that use the learner’s first language as a vehicle for content instruction. Offered in Spanish.

BBL 5043. Ethnography of Communication. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Examines the theoretical perspectives for the study of communication in varying cultural contexts. Topics may include intercultural and intracultural communication patterns, the effect of cultural differences on interactions, culture concepts, nonverbal behavior, and increasing intercultural effectiveness.

BBL 5053. Assessment in Bilingual and ESL Programs. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Critical review of research in the areas of testing linguistically diverse students and the sociocultural dimensions of standardized testing, academic achievement, and accountability. Study of process for assessing language proficiency and content-area knowledge in bilingual and English as a Second Language programs. Critical evaluations of standardized tests of language proficiency and literacy, and development of alternative and authentic language, literacy and content-area assessment techniques. (Formerly titled “Assessment in Bilingual and Second Language Studies.”).

BBL 5063. Biliteracy in Bilingual Classrooms. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Examines research and instructional practices supporting the acquisition of biliteracy through reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Preparation and adaptation of holistic, thematically based materials and activities. Critical evaluation of existing materials in Spanish. Offered in Spanish.

BBL 5083. Curricular and Instructional Considerations for Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Classrooms. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

A critical analysis of the rationale for the preparation of teachers who are culturally and linguistically proficient/responsive to address the needs of diverse student populations. The study of various conceptual frameworks for curricular, instructional, and parental involvement for effective educational practices with diverse learners of different ages, levels, or backgrounds will be conducted. In addition, the course analyzes the influences on learning of sociocultural, sociopsychological, and sociopolitical variables and their relevance for the identity and education of diverse learners, focusing particularly on the pedagogical and assessment implications.

BBL 5093. Multicultural Art and Folklore in the United States. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

A study of the visual arts and the folklore of representative culture groups creating a significant contribution to contemporary society. The course emphasizes Latino/a contributions to mural and street art, regional and religious art, as well as folk, popular, and other arts.

BBL 5113. Theoretical Foundations of Bicultural-Bilingual Education. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

A critical analysis of the rationale for bicultural-bilingual education focusing on history, philosophy, and theory, in particular, sociocultural theories (e.g., Vygotskian theory). The study and analysis of bicultural-bilingual program designs, research perspectives on effective implementation, and adaptation to community needs.

BBL 5123. Sociolinguistics and Education. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Study of sociolinguistic theory and methodology, with special emphasis on their applicability to linguistically diverse educational contexts and communities. Topics include sociolinguistic approaches to bilingualism and second language learning, dialect diversity, and minority language maintenance and shift.

BBL 5133. Latino Biculturalism in the United States. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

A study of Mexican American, Puerto Rican, Cuban, and other Latino communities in the United States. Topics may include economic labor force participation, the dynamics of globalization and transnationalism, cultural revitalization and self-determination patterns, school achievement and performance, political participation, and integration.

BBL 5173. Sociocultural Issues and the Teaching of Reading. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Study of how social, cultural, and linguistic factors affect the reading and writing practices of students and how school reading curriculum, instruction, and assessment can be designed to support students from differing sociocultural backgrounds. Special attention is given to the role that social class, dialect, gender, second language learning, and ethnicity play in literacy learning and teaching.

BBL 5193. Multicultural Literature for Children. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

A study of representative children’s literature for, and about, the many culture groups in the Americas, with emphasis on Latinos and Latinas.

BBL 6003. Research Design and Inquiry in Bicultural-Bilingual Studies. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisite: Completion of 9 semester hours of degree program or permission of instructor. Familiarizes students with various research approaches and methodologies used in bicultural-bilingual studies including conceptualization, structure and types of research design, and pragmatic deliberation of data acquisition and analysis. Topics include information retrieval and library research, literature review, research criticism, and proposal writing.

BBL 6033. Topics in Bicultural Studies. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Examines topics of interest in bicultural studies and bilingual education. Possible topics include, but are not limited to, contemporary Chicano arts, Chicanas, Mexican American folklore, cultural factors in human resources development, and bilingual-multicultural school communities. May be repeated for credit when topics vary.

BBL 6043. Advanced Topics in Bilingual and Dual-Language Education. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Explores qualitative and quantitative studies, theories, and models within the field of bilingual education. Examines research within schools and communities that influences instructional policies and practices in dual-language and other bilingual enrichment programs. (Formerly titled “Bilingual Education Research.”).

BBL 6063. Research Methods in Bilingual and Second Language Studies. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisite: Completion of 6 semester hours of degree program or permission of instructor. Familiarizes students with selected methodologies for investigating issues related to bilingualism, biculturalism, and second language learning. Topics may include ethnographic, discourse analytic, case study, introspective, elicitation, and experimental and quasi-experimental research designs. It places emphasis on information retrieval and library research, literature review, critical reading, and research writing.

BBL 6073. Ethnographic Research Methods in Bicultural-Bilingual Settings. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisites: BBL 6003 and completion of 15 semester credit hours of degree program or instructor approval. Explores ethnographic approaches and their translation into bicultural-bilingual studies from a multidisciplinary perspective. Emphasis is on learning and practicing participant observation, interviewing, journal writing, document searching, strategies for qualitative analysis and interpretation, and writing styles of research reports.

BBL 6093. Chicana/Latina Feminist Methodologies. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

This course will examine the different frameworks for theory building by Chicana/Latina feminists. Challenging assumptions within social sciences, Chicana/Latina intellectuals have developed a critical theory that interrogates knowledge production. The course emphasizes methodology and how we produce knowledge, the means by which we examine communities, and how we conduct research as insiders/outsiders.

BBL 6103. Chicana/o Historical Thought. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

This seminar is a critical examination of the historical experiences of Chicanas and Chicanos. The course is grounded in an analysis of the field of Chicana/o historical writing and within Chicana/o Studies from its inception to the present.

BBL 6223. Anthropology and Education in Multicultural Contexts. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisite: BBL 5003. The application of anthropological theory and methods to the study of education with emphasis on bicultural-bilingual school and community contexts. Topics include theories of culture, cultural transmission and acquisition, and cultural reproduction and production for understanding informal and formal education and its outcomes.

BBL 6233. Advanced Topics in Language Policy. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisite: ESL 5003 or an equivalent. Study of language policies, discourses, and practices. Topics may include theory and implementation of bilingual policies in the United States, cases of official language decisions, instructional medium choices, literacy initiatives, gender-neutral language reforms, or other language-related decisions and policies.

BBL 6941. Internship in Bicultural/Multicultural Settings. (0-0) 1 Credit Hour.

A supervised experience, relevant to the student’s program of study, within selected community organizations. Must be taken on a credit/no-credit basis, and no more than 3 hours will apply to a Master’s degree.

BBL 6942. Internship in Bicultural/Multicultural Settings. (0-0) 2 Credit Hours.

A supervised experience, relevant to the student’s program of study, within selected community organizations. Must be taken on a credit/no-credit basis, and no more than 3 hours will apply to a Master’s degree.

BBL 6943. Internship in Bicultural/Multicultural Settings. (0-0) 3 Credit Hours.

A supervised experience, relevant to the student’s program of study, within selected community organizations. Must be taken on a credit/no-credit basis, and no more than 3 hours will apply to a Master’s degree.

BBL 6951. Independent Study. (0-0) 1 Credit Hour.

Prerequisites: Graduate standing and permission in writing (form available) of the instructor, the student’s program advisor and Graduate Advisor of Record. Independent reading, research, discussion, and/or writing under the direction of a faculty member. For students needing specialized work not normally or not often available as part of the regular course offerings. May be repeated for credit, but not more than 6 hours, regardless of discipline, will apply to the Master’s degree.

BBL 6952. Independent Study. (0-0) 2 Credit Hours.

Prerequisites: Graduate standing and permission in writing (form available) of the instructor, the student’s program advisor and Graduate Advisor of Record. Independent reading, research, discussion, and/or writing under the direction of a faculty member. For students needing specialized work not normally or not often available as part of the regular course offerings. May be repeated for credit, but not more than 6 hours, regardless of discipline, will apply to the Master’s degree.

BBL 6953. Independent Study. (0-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisites: Graduate standing and permission in writing (form available) of the instructor, the student’s program advisor and Graduate Advisor of Record. Independent reading, research, discussion, and/or writing under the direction of a faculty member. For students needing specialized work not normally or not often available as part of the regular course offerings. May be repeated for credit, but not more than 6 hours, regardless of discipline, will apply to the Master’s degree.

BBL 6961. Comprehensive Examination. (0-0) 1 Credit Hour.

Prerequisite: Approval of the appropriate Graduate Program Committee to take the Comprehensive Examination. Independent study course for the purpose of taking the Comprehensive Examination. May be repeated as many times as approved by the Graduate Program Committee. Enrollment is required each term in which the Comprehensive Examination is taken if no other courses are being taken that term. The grade report for the course is “CR” (satisfactory performance on the Comprehensive Examination) or “NC” (unsatisfactory performance on the Comprehensive Examination).

BBL 6973. Special Problems. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. An organized course offering the opportunity for specialized study not normally or not often available as part of the regular course offerings. Special Problems courses may be repeated for credit when the topics vary, but no more than 6 hours, regardless of discipline, will apply to the Master’s degree.

BBL 6983. Master’s Thesis. (0-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisites: Permission of the Graduate Advisor of Record and thesis director. Thesis research and preparation. May be repeated for credit, but not more than 6 hours will apply to the Master’s degree. Credit will be awarded upon completion of the thesis. Enrollment is required each term in which the thesis is in progress.

BBL 7003. Proseminar in Culture, Literacy and Language. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Required in the first year of doctoral work. This course is intended to provide first-year doctoral students with an opportunity to explore the main theories and areas of research in culture, literacy, and language, with emphasis on language minority communities. Readings include foundational and recent work in interdisciplinary study of culture, literacy, and language, with emphasis on implications for human development, social organization, and education. Emphasis on the development of scholarly writing. Students will become familiar with areas of research of doctoral program faculty.

BBL 7013. Research Design and Statistics for Culture, Literacy and Language. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisite: An introductory course in statistics. Research design for quantitative studies in culture, literacy, and language. Topics include formulating testable hypotheses, collecting data on linguistic and cultural variables, selecting appropriate statistical models, and interpreting results. Special attention to the procedures commonly used in studies of language development and language variation, including parametric and nonparametric models.

BBL 7023. Qualitative Research Methods for Culture, Literacy and Language. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Overview of qualitative research methodologies and applied social science techniques for conducting research in both educational and non-educational settings. Exploration of epistemological and intellectual controversies in qualitative research. Emphasis on practical applications of research methods and techniques to design and carry out qualitative studies.

BBL 7033. Seminar in Advanced Research Methods. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisites: BBL 5123 or an equivalent, and BBL 7023. Field research methods in linguistically diverse communities, with particular attention to discourse analytic approaches. Emphasis on collection, reduction, and analysis of language data. Special attention to procedures and discourse analytic techniques commonly used to examine language in use, in multilingual contexts. Consideration of ethical issues in research in minority communities. May be repeated for credit when topics vary. (Formerly titled “Seminar in Discourse Analysis.”).

BBL 7043. Research Design and Qualitative Analysis for Culture, Literacy and Language. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisite: BBL 7023. Enhances doctoral research proposals from formulation of the research questions, appropriate methods for collection, construction of a conceptual literature review, analysis of data, and determining findings. Provides theory and techniques for analyzing qualitative data sets. Diverse theoretical frameworks will be used to analyze the data sets required from students. May include use of qualitative computer software.

BBL 7083. Technology for Qualitative Research. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Exploration of the effective use of technology to facilitate data collection, organization, and analysis. Emphasis on application of theoretically-based methodologies for handling and analyzing qualitative data through the use of qualitative research software. Course also includes attention to other hardware or software relevant to the collection, organization and analysis of qualitative data, such as digital audio and video recording equipment and transcribing software and bibliographic software. Most effective for graduate students who have completed a qualitative methodology course and who have already begun the collection of qualitative research data.

BBL 7113. Seminar in Cultural Studies Research. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Interdisciplinary study of anthropological and humanistic conceptions of all forms of cultural production in relation to social and historical structures. Topics may include: a range of society’s arts, beliefs, institutions, and communicative practices in relation to social and historical structures. May be repeated for credit when topics vary.

BBL 7123. Sociocultural Contexts of Literacy. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Theories and research in language and literacy that examine the complex interactions among social, cultural, psychological, and political factors in literacy learning in multicultural and multilingual contexts.

BBL 7133. Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Theories and research in bilingualism, multilingualism, and second language acquisition. Emphasis on the linguistic, cognitive, and motivational factors in the study of language acquisition.

BBL 7203. Seminar in Mexican American and Latina/o Biculturalism. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisite: BBL 7113 or consent of instructor. Study of Mexican American, Central American, Cuban, and Puerto Rican ethnic self-determination patterns in the context of mainstream cultural diversity in the United States. Suggested topics include: Latino cultural expression, Latino labor market participation, Latino political participation, Latino educational participation and achievement. May be repeated for credit when topics vary. (Formerly titled “Seminar in Latino Biculturalism.”).

BBL 7213. Ethnological Theory. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Study of the relations of theory and ethnography in sociocultural anthropology. Examines cultural theory, ethnography, comparison, history, and the current controversies that illustrate various theoretical perspectives. Particular emphasis on multicultural and multilingual contexts.

BBL 7223. Seminar in Biliteracy and Second Language Literacy. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisite: BBL 7123 or consent of instructor. Exploration of literacy development from social and cognitive perspectives. Topics may include simultaneous acquisition of first and second language literacy; emerging literacy in second language; adult literacy; reading and writing in a second language; the relationship of biliteracy and second language literacy to language maintenance and shift. May be repeated for credit when topics vary.

BBL 7233. Seminar in Second Language Learning & Multilingualism. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisite: BBL 7133 or consent of instructor. Study of the research in second language acquisition and bilingualism. Topics may include age and second language acquisition; identity and second language acquisition; sociocultural theories of second language acquisition, universal grammar and second language acquisition, interlanguage variation, bilingual groups in the Americas, Asia, and Europe, cultural and linguistic interaction norms, and cognitive development in the bilingual child. May be repeated for credit when topics vary. (Formerly titled “Seminar in Second Language Acquisition and Bilingualism.”).

BBL 7243. Seminar in Applied Linguistics. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisite: BBL 7133 or consent of instructor. Topics in linguistic theory and their relationships to language behavior in multilingual contexts. Topics may include phonological theory, syntactic models, discourse analysis, pragmatics, language socialization, language contact, language maintenance and shift, sociolinguistics and literacy, and language variation. May be repeated for credit when topics vary. (Formerly titled “Seminar in Language and Language Use.”).

BBL 7253. Seminar in Mexican American & Latina/o Issues in Education. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Critical analysis of the social, political, economic, and cultural factors that have historically impacted the K–16 education of Latinos in the United States. Examination of theoretical frames used to interpret their schooling experiences. Topics may include legal and policy issues, historical perspectives, bilingual/multicultural education, and teacher preparation for a linguistically diverse society. May be repeated for credit when topics vary. (Formerly titled “Seminar in Latino Issues in Education.”).

BBL 7303. Directed Doctoral Research. (0-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Supervised research on a topic in culture, literacy, and language. May be repeated for credit, but no more than 6 hours may be applied to the Doctoral degree.

BBL 7311. Doctoral Dissertation. (0-0) 1 Credit Hour.

Prerequisite: Admission to candidacy for the Doctoral degree. May be repeated for credit, but no more than 12 hours may be applied to the Doctoral degree. Credit will be awarded upon completion of the dissertation.

BBL 7312. Doctoral Dissertation. (0-0) 2 Credit Hours.

Prerequisite: Admission to candidacy for the Doctoral degree. May be repeated for credit, but no more than 12 hours may be applied to the Doctoral degree. Credit will be awarded upon completion of the dissertation.

BBL 7313. Doctoral Dissertation. (0-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisite: Admission to candidacy for the Doctoral degree. May be repeated for credit, but no more than 12 hours may be applied to the Doctoral degree. Credit will be awarded upon completion of the dissertation.

English as a Second Language (ESL) Courses

ESL 5003. Linguistics for Second Language and Bilingual Specialists. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Concepts in linguistics directed toward a broad understanding of human language, with particular attention to teaching in second-language and bilingual contexts.

ESL 5013. Foundations of Second Language Acquisition. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Study of principles, theories, and issues in second language acquisition and bilingualism, with implications for language teaching.

ESL 5033. Second Language Reading and Writing. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Current approaches to the teaching and learning of reading and writing in English as a Second Language. The relationship of second language reading and writing to language learning including oral development. A critical evaluation of existing literacy materials available for second language learners. Particular focus on second language learners with emergent and beginning levels of proficiency.

ESL 5043. Listening and Speaking in Second Language Programs. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Development, presentation, and evaluation of materials and strategies for teaching listening, speaking, and pronunciation to second language learners. Emphasizes current theories and development of oral proficiency.

ESL 5053. Approaches to Second Language Instruction. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Study of instructional strategies for teaching English as a Second/Foreign language to students from beginning to more advanced stages of English proficiency. Survey of approaches and methods used in the field with a particular focus on communicative language teaching. Critical evaluation of existing curricular materials. Emphasis on the planning and delivery of effective ESL/EFL lessons.

ESL 5063. Language and Content-Area Instruction. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Theoretical and practical approaches to the integration of language teaching with content-area instruction. Emphasis on research-based methods for developing oral language and literacy for academic purposes in school settings, and on the planning and delivery of effective sheltered content-area instruction.

ESL 5073. Computer Assisted Language Learning. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisites: Basic computer skills and consent of instructor. Overview of the rationale, value, and management of technology in the second language classroom; the creation of technology-enhanced lessons, effective use of Internet-based resources, and critical evaluation of language learning software applications.

ESL 5083. Pedagogical Grammar. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Study of English grammar from descriptive and discourse perspectives, with consideration of cross-linguistic contrasts and of applications for teaching English as a Second Language.

ESL 6013. Second Language Acquisition Research. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisite: 15 semester credit hours completed in degree program including ESL 5013, or consent of instructor. Investigation of second language acquisition from multiple perspectives through data-based studies.

ESL 6033. Topics in Second Language Acquisition and Teaching. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Topics may include English for Special Purposes, second language acquisition and discourse analysis, intercultural pragmatics, interactional approaches to second language acquisition, and second language learning in adulthood. May be repeated for credit when topics vary.

ESL 6043. Family and Adult Literacy in Language Minority Communities. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Theoretical and practical aspects of family and adult literacy development in language minority communities. Topics may include relationships between oral and written language; second language literacy, and relationships between literacy and social, economic, and political factors. Implications for program development and implementation.

ESL 6053. Program and Syllabus Design. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Theoretical and practical concerns in developing instructional programs to meet the objectives of second language learners, including English for Specific Purposes.

ESL 6063. Advanced Second Language Literacy. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Current approaches and theories of second language literacy, with a focus on the integration of reading and writing. Review of research on second language reading and second language writing. Theory-based practice in literacy development in a second language. Particular focus on second language learners with advanced levels of proficiency.

ESL 6941. Internship in English as a Second Language. (0-0) 1 Credit Hour.

Prerequisites: 12 semester credit hours of coursework in ESL and recommendation by advisor. Supervised experience in teaching English as a Second Language. Required for students with little to no teaching experience in ESL. Taken on a credit/no-credit basis, and no more than 3 hours will apply to a Master’s degree.

ESL 6942. Internship in English as a Second Language. (0-0) 2 Credit Hours.

Prerequisites: 12 semester credit hours of coursework in ESL and recommendation by advisor. Supervised experience in teaching English as a Second Language. Required for students with little to no teaching experience in ESL. Taken on a credit/no-credit basis, and no more than 3 hours will apply to a Master’s degree.

ESL 6943. Internship in English as a Second Language. (0-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisites: 12 semester credit hours of coursework in ESL and recommendation by advisor. Supervised experience in teaching English as a Second Language. Required for students with little to no teaching experience in ESL. Taken on a credit/no-credit basis, and no more than 3 hours will apply to a Master’s degree.

ESL 6951. Independent Study. (0-0) 1 Credit Hour.

Prerequisites: Graduate standing and permission in writing (form available) of the instructor and the department’s Graduate Advisor of Record. Independent reading, research, discussion, and/or writing under the direction of a faculty member. For students needing specialized work not normally or not often available as part of the regular course offerings. May be repeated for credit, but no more than 6 hours, regardless of discipline, will apply to the Master’s degree.

ESL 6952. Independent Study. (0-0) 2 Credit Hours.

Prerequisites: Graduate standing and permission in writing (form available) of the instructor and the department’s Graduate Advisor of Record. Independent reading, research, discussion, and/or writing under the direction of a faculty member. For students needing specialized work not normally or not often available as part of the regular course offerings. May be repeated for credit, but no more than 6 hours, regardless of discipline, will apply to the Master’s degree.

ESL 6953. Independent Study. (0-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisites: Graduate standing and permission in writing (form available) of the instructor and the department’s Graduate Advisor of Record. Independent reading, research, discussion, and/or writing under the direction of a faculty member. For students needing specialized work not normally or not often available as part of the regular course offerings. May be repeated for credit, but no more than 6 hours, regardless of discipline, will apply to the Master’s degree.

ESL 6973. Special Problems. (3-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. An organized course offering the opportunity for specialized study not normally or not often available as part of the regular course offerings. Special Problems courses may be repeated for credit when topics vary, but no more than 6 hours, regardless of discipline, will apply to the Master’s degree.

ESL 6983. Master’s Thesis. (0-0) 3 Credit Hours.

Prerequisites: Permission of the Graduate Advisor of Record and thesis director. Thesis research and preparation. May be repeated for credit, but no more than 6 hours will apply to the Master’s degree. Credit will be awarded upon completion of the thesis. Enrollment is required each term in which the thesis is in progress.